Prevalence of Vaginitis in Children and Adolescents of Les Cayes, Haiti
Data on the prevalence of vaginitis in children from the third largest city in Haiti indicate that nurses and other health care professionals, especially those providing care in Haiti, need to accurately diagnose, prevent, and treat vaginitis in children.Â Vaginitis can have serious complications yet there are no national data regarding the prevalence of vaginitis in Haitian children and probably not in other countries with similar problems. Â This paper provides data from Les Cayes, Haiti. Â Signs, symptoms, risk factors, methods for diagnoses, and possible complications of vaginitis are reviewed.Â Recommendations for prevention and treatment are provided. To successfully prevent and treat vaginitis, a holistic call to action includes the involvement of nurses and other health care professionals, the media, and government officials that encompasses education, appropriate medications, maintenance of follow up appointments, and continuity of treatment.
Botash A. S. (2011). Child sexual abuse in emergency medicine. Retrieved from
Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC (2010). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment
guidelines, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Vol. 59 / No. RR-12. http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2010/STD-Treatment-2010-RR5912.pdf
Eckert, L. (2006). Clinical practice. Acute vulvovaginitis. The New England Journal of
Medicine, 355 (12), 1244-1252
Erlich, S. D. (2010). Vaginitis. retrieved from http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/vaginitis-
Gibson, M. V. (2005). Vaginitis- A case-based guide to infectious causes. Patient Care, 47-53
Gor, H. B. (2011). Vaginitis. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/797392
Hockenberry, J. & Winkelstein, W (2005). Wongâ€™s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing.
Missouri: Elsevier Mosby.
Joishy, M., Ashtekar, C. S., Jain, A. & Gonsalves, R. (2005). Do we need to treat vulvovaginitis
in prepubertal girls? British Medical Journal. 330 (7484), 186-188
Low Birth weights babies (percentage of Births) in Haiti. (n. d.).
Muller, W. J. & Schmitt, B. D. (2004). Group A Î²-hemolitic streptococcal vulvovaginitis:
diagnosis by rapid antigen testing. Clinical Pediatrics, 43, 179-183
Owen, M. K. & Clenney, T. L. (2004). Management of vaginitis. American Family Physician,
(11), 2125- 2132
Pakshir K., Yazdani, M. & Kimiaghaghalam R. (2007). Etiology of vaginal candidiasis in Shiraz,
Southern Iran. Research Journal of Microbiology, 2 (9), 696-700.
Porth M. C., Matfin G. (2009). Pathophysiology, concepts of altered health States (8th ed.,
p. 1132). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluver Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Rosdahl, C.B. & Kowsaki, M.T. (2008). Textbook of basic Nursing. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluver Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Simpson, T. & Ivey, J. (2004). Pediatrics Managment problems. Pediatric Nursing, 30( 3), 228-229
Soper, D. E. (2007). Vaginitis. Vaginal itching and discharge: A Merck manual of patient
symptoms podcast. Vaginitis and Pelvic inflammatory Disease (PID).Retrieved from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology_and_obstetrics/vaginitis_and_pelvic_inflammatory_disease_pid/vaginitis.html
Trama, J. P., Adelson M. E., Raphaelli, I., Stemmer, S. M. & Mordechai, E. (2005). Detection of
Candida species in vaginal samples in a clinical laboratory setting. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 13 (2), 63-67
United States Agency International Development USAID/Haiti. (2010). USAID HIV/AIDS
Health profile for Haiti. American Embassy Tabarre Haiti. Google search. Retrieved from: http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/aids/Countries/lac/haiti.pdf.
Wardlaw, T. Blanc, A., Zupan, J. & Ahman, E. (2004). Low birth weight: country, Regional
and global estimates. United Nations Childrenâ€™s Fund and World Health Organization. UNICEF, New York, 2004. retrieved from http://www.childinfo.org/files/low_birthweight_from_EY.pdf
Wong, C. (2012). Yeast infection remedies three ways to cure one at home. Retrieved from
World Health Organization and United Nations Childrens Fund Joint Monitoring Programme
(JMP) for Water Supply and sanitation. (2008). Progress on drinking water and sanitation: Special focus on sanitation. (NLM classification: WA 670) UNICEF, New York and WHO, Geneva.
The Copyright Notice entered below will appear in About the Journal and in each published item's metadata. While it is up to the journal to determine the nature of its copyright agreement with authors, the Public Knowledge Project recommends the use of theÂ CREATIVE COMMONS license. To that end, it providesÂ SAMPLE COPYRIGHT NOTICE WORDING that can be cut and pasted into the space below for journals that (a) offer open access, (b) offer delayed open access, or (c) do not offer open access.