Synthesizing Preliminary Normative Values for the Hong Kong Brief Version of World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale: A Review of Published Studies 1997 - 2014
Objective.To synthesizepreliminary normative values from published data of the Hong Kong version of World Health OrganizationQuality of life scaleâ€“brief version (WHOQOL-BREF-HK) and to identify areas for nursing attention and further research.
Design. A literature review.
Data sources.The literature search was performed from January 1997 to December 2014. Keywords including WHOQOL-BREF-HK, Quality of life, Brief, Scale, and Hong Kong Chinese were used to search the following electronic data bases: Journals @ Ovid Full Text, EBM Reviews, EMBase, PsycInfo, DARE and Ovid Medline. In addition, hand searching of the reference lists of retrieved articles was performed.Â
Review methods.Studies were selected when they adopted the WHOQOL-BREF-HK as a measurement. The scale has four domains. Studies with incomplete domain data were excluded. The WHOQOL-BREF-HK data were extracted from the selected studies by one of the authors independently and checked by the other author to ensure accuracy. The extracted data, presented in raw score, are considered as the preliminary normative values.
Results.The twenty-three studies selected for the review included 3,480 subjects(mean age ranged from 31 to 76 years). The preliminary normative values were displayed in atable to show the mean score of the four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF-HK of each study by subject classifications(subject characteristics, sample size, mean age, percentage of female subjects), and by three categories of people (well, sick andthose with specific life events). Our synthesis shows some interesting trends, including people with schizophrenia tend to have the poorest quality of life, and sick people after completinga course of treatment with a possible remission tend to achieve quality of life similar to well people. These trends deserve nursing attention and further research with a population-based sample.Â
Conclusions.Given that population-based normative data for WHOQOL-BREF-HK are unavailable, the values presented in this study, although limited by not using methodological recommendations for normatization of quality of life instruments, offer a preliminary and helpful source for cross references for Chinese people living in Hong Kong. Ourfindings also provide pointers for further research, and help nurses to make better decisions in clinical practice.
Chan, C. S., & Chan, P. A. (2007). User satisfaction, community participation and quality of life among Chinese wheelchair users with spinal cord injury: a preliminary study. Occupational Therapy International, 14(3), 123-143.
Chan, W. C. S., Chien, W. T., Thompson, R. D., Chiu, F. K. H., & Lam, L. (2006). Quality of life measures for depressed and non-depressed Chinese older people. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 1086-1092.
Chan, W. C. S., Chiu, F. K. H., Chien, W. T., Goggins, W., Thompson, D. & Hong, B. (2009). Predictors of change in health-related quality of life among older people with depression: a longitudinal study. International Psychogeriatrics, 21(6), 1171-1179.
Chan, W. C. S., Hsiung, P. C., Thompson, R. D., Chen, S. C., & Hwu, H. G. (2007). Health-related quality of life of Chinese people with schizophrenia in Hong Kong and Taipei: a cross-sectional analysis. Research in Nursing & Health, 30, 261-269.
+Indra m. “Operasi Bedah Dari Masa Ke Masa.” Adisucipto.web.id, 12 Sept. 2016, http://adisucipto.web.id/kesehatan/operasi-bedah-dari-masa-ke-masa-12859.html. Accessed 13 June 2017.
Cheng, K. W. S., Sheng, B., Lau, K. K., Wong, C. W., Ng, Y. K., Li, H. L., Chan, L. Y. E., Tso, Y. K. E., Lam, K., Chau, T. N., & Chiu, M. C. (2004). Adjustment outcomes in Chinese Patients following one-month recovery from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Hong Kong. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192(12), 868-871.
Cheuk, D. K. L., Mok, A. S. P., Lee, A. C. W., Chiang, A. K. S., Ha, S. Y., Lau, Y. L., & Chan, G. C. F. (2008). Quality of life in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia after hematopoietic SCT. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 42, 319-327.
Cheung, Y.L., Molassiotis, A., & Chang, A. M. (2001). A pilot study on the effect of progressive muscle relaxation training of patients after stoma surgery. European Journal of Cancer Care, 10, 107-114.
Chien, W.T., & Lee, Y. M. (2008). A disease management program for families of persons in Hong Kong with dementia. Psychiatric Services, 59(4), 433-436.
Cruz, L. N., Polanczyk, C. A., Camey, S. A., Hoffmann, J. F., & Fleck, M. P. (2011) Quality of life in Brazil: normative values for the WHOQOL-BREF in a southern general population sample. Quality of Life Research, doi:10.1007/s11136-011-9845-3.
Fung, W. Y., & Chien, W. T. (2002). The effectiveness of a mutual support group for family caregivers of a relative with dementia. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 16(3), 134-144.
Gandek, B., & Ware, J. E., Jr. (1998). Methods for validating and norming translations of health status questionnaires: The IQOLA Project approach. International Quality of Life Assessment. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51, 953â€“959.
Hawthorne, G., Herrman, H., & Murphy, B. (2006) Interpreting the WHOQOL-BREF: Preliminary population norms and effect sizes. Social Indicators Research, 77, 37-59.
Ho, A., Ng, K. K., Chan, C. C., & Lee, T. M. (2000). Quality of life of people with epilepsy following temporal lobectomy: a preliminary report. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 91, 1035-1039.
Hu, Y., Mak, N. F. J., Wong, Y. W., Leong, C. Y. J., & Luk, D. K. K. (2008). Quality of life of traumatic spinal cord injured patients in Hong Kong. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 40(2), 126-131.
Kong, L. L. I., & Molassiotis, A. (1999). Quality of life, coping and concerns in Chinese patients after renal transplantation. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 36, 313-322.
Kwok, T., Lo, S. R., Wong, E., Tang, W. K., Mok, V., & Wong K. S. (2006). Quality of life of stroke survivors: a 1 â€“ year follow-up study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87(9), 1177-1182.
Lai, P. Y. B., Tang, S. K. C., & Chung, K. H. T. (2009). Age-specific correlates of quality of life in Chinese women with cervical cancer. Support Care Cancer, 17, 271-278.
Leung, T. W., Leung, W. C., Ng, E. H. Y., & Ho, P. C. (2005). Quality of life of victims of intimate partner violence. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 90, 258-262.
Leung, K. F., Tay, M., Cheng, S.W.S., & Lin, F. (1997). Hong Kong Chinese version World Health Organisation Quality of Life Measure â€“ abbreviated version. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Hospital Authority.
Li, H. W. R., Lo, S. T. S., Teh, K. G. D., Tong, N. C., Tsui, H. Y. M., Cheung, K. B., & Chung, K. H. T. (2004). Impact of common contraceptive methods on quality of life and sexual function in Hong Kong Chinese women. Contraception, 70(6), 474 â€“ 482.
Ling, C. D., Wong, C. W. W., Holroyd, A. E., & Gray, A. S. (2007). Silent killers of the night: an exploration of psychological health and suicidality among female street sex workers. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 33, 281-299.
Lucas-Carrasco, R. (2011). The WHO quality of life (WHOQOL) questionnaire: Spanish development and validation studies. Quality of Life Research, doi:10.1007/s11136-011-9926-3.
Molassiotis, A., Chan, C. W. H., Yam, B. M. C., Chan, S. J. (2000). Quality of life in Chinese women with gynaecological cancers. Supportive Care Cancer, 8, 414-422.
Molassiotis, A., Callaghan, P., Twinn, S. F., Lam, S. W., Chung, W. Y., & Li, C. K. (2002). A pilot study of the effects of cognitive-behavioral group therapy and peer support / counseling in decreasing psychologic distress and improving quality of life in Chinese patients with symptomatic HIV disease. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 16(2), 83-96.
Noerholm, V., Groenvold, M., Watt, T., Bjorner, J. B., Rasmussen, N. A., & Bech, P. (2004). Quality of life in the Danish general populationâ€“normative data and validity of WHOQOL-BREF using Rasch and item response theory models. Quality of Life Research, 13, 531â€“540.
Ohaeri, J. U., Awadalla, A. W., & Gado, O. M. (2009). Subjective quality of life in a nationwide sample of Kuwaiti subjects using the short version of the WHO quality of life instrument. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 44, 693â€“701.
Ostini, R., Dower, J., & Donald, M. (2012). The Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life 19 (ADDQoL): feasibility, reliability and validity in a population-based sample of Australian adults. Quality of Life Research, 21, 1471-1477.
Pan, J. H., Song, X. Y., Lee, S. Y., & Kwok, T. (2008). Longitudinal analysis of quality of life for stroke survivors using latent curve models. Stroke, 39, 2795-2802.
Shiu, A. T. Y., Choi K. C., Lee D. T. F., Yu, D. S. F., & Ng, W. M. (2014). An application of a health-related quality of life conceptual model in community dwelling older Chinese people with diabetes to understand the relationships among clinical and psychological outcomes. Journal of Diabetes Investigation, 5, 677-686.
Shum, N. F., Lui, Y. L., & Law, W. L. (2014). A nurse-led psycho-education programme for Chinese carers of patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer Nursing Practice, 13(5), 31-39.
Skevington, S. M. (2002). Advancing cross-cultural research on quality of life: Observations drawn from the WHOQOL development. Quality of Life Research, 11, 135-144.
Skevington, S. M., Lotfy, M. & Oâ€™Connell, K. A. (2004). The World Health Organisationâ€™s WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment: Psychometric properties and results of the international field trial. A report from the WHOQOL Group. Quality of Life Research, 13, 299-310.
WHOQOL Group. (1995). The World Health Organisation Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL): Position paper from the World Health Organisation. Social Science and Medicine, 41, 1403-1409.
Xiang, Y. T., Weng, Y. Z., Leung, C. M., Tang, W. K., & Ungvari, S. G. (2009). Long-term use of mood stabilizers and its impact on the quality of life of Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 32(1), 16-21.
Yau, F. Y. E., Chan, C. H. C., Chan, S. F. A., & Chui, K. T. B. (2005). Changes in psychosocial and work-related characteristics among clubhouse members: a preliminary report. Work, 25, 287-296.
Yeung, S. M., Shiu, T. Y. A., Martin, R. C., & Chu K. M. (2006). Translation and validation of the Chinese version of the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index in patients with gastric tumor. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 61, 469-477.
Yu, L. M. C., Fielding, R., Chan, L. W. C., Tse, K. C. V., Choi, H. K. P., Lau, W. H., Choy, T. K. D., O, S. K., Lee. W. M. A., & Sham, S. T. J. (2000). Measuring quality of life of Chinese cancer patients: a validation of the Chinese Version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy â€“ General (FACT-G) Scale. Cancer, 88(7), 1715-1727.
Yu, S. F. D., Lee, T. F. D., & Woo, J. (2010). Improving health-related quality of life of patients with chronic heart failure: effects of relaxation therapy. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(2), 392-403.
The Copyright Notice entered below will appear in About the Journal and in each published item's metadata. While it is up to the journal to determine the nature of its copyright agreement with authors, the Public Knowledge Project recommends the use of theÂ CREATIVE COMMONS license. To that end, it providesÂ SAMPLE COPYRIGHT NOTICE WORDING that can be cut and pasted into the space below for journals that (a) offer open access, (b) offer delayed open access, or (c) do not offer open access.