The Effect of Air mattresses (Total Care P 500Â®) on Pressure Ulcer Prevalence and Incidence Rates among Adult Post Cardiac Surgical Patients
Background: Pressure ulcer development is a common problem worldwide, especially among patients in Intensive Care Units who are at higher risk of skin injury due to several factors such as limited mobility, inadequate skin moisture, illness, and poor nutritional status.
Objective: To determine the effect of a newly introduced air mattress on pressure ulcer development among patients who underwent cardiac surgery in a Cardiac Intensive Care Unit within a tertiary care facility.
Method: Quantitative descriptive retrospective observational design was used to describe the effect of air mattresses on the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers among adult post-cardiac surgical patients. A convenience sample of patients, who underwent cardiac surgeries, above fourteen years of age, andÂ stayed at least one day in cardiac surgical intensive care unit during a six month period (1st April â€“ 1st October, 2012) were enrolled in this study. Data was extracted from the patientâ€™s charts and electronic medical records in a retrospective manner. Statistical Package for Social Scientists 20.0 was used to analyze the data.
Results: Of 224, three patients developed stage two pressure ulcers over the sacral area (1.3%) comparing to 2.76% during the same period in 2011. The prevalence rate was 2.9% comparing to 7.67% reported in 2011. The results showed no statistical significant differences between the patients who developed pressure ulcers and the patients who were free of pressure ulcers. Length of stay and operating time duration were significant predictors for pressure ulcers development (p values, 0.006 and 0.051 respectively).Conclusions: Using air mattresses for cardiac surgical patients might help in reducing the incidence of pressure ulcers in Cardiac Intensive Care Unit. The length of stay and operating time were identified as the main risk factors in pressure ulcer development.
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