Being engaged: The multiple interactions between job demands and job resources and its impact on nurses engagement

  • Rachel Gabel-Shemueli Escuela de Post-Grado Universidad del Pacifico
  • Simon Landau Dolan Future of Work Chair ESADE Business School Ramon Llull University
  • Adriana Suárez Ceretti Fac. de Medicina-Universidad de la República


This study has been inspired by  the job-demands resource model. It evaluates the role that job resources play in moderating the impact that job demands have on work engagement in a community of nurses. A total of 481 nurses in 109 health care centers participated in this study. Three job demands: work overload, emotional demands, and home-work imbalance; and three specific job resources: social support, autonomy, and self-development opportunities were used to test the interaction hypotheses of this research. Results show that 33 out of 36 of the possible interaction effects were significant, thus showing that job resources create a buffer between job demands and work engagement and its three dimensions in nurses. By and large,   hypotheses were confirmed. Research and practical implications are discussed. 

Author Biography

Simon Landau Dolan, Future of Work Chair ESADE Business School Ramon Llull University
Prof. Dolan is the holder of the "Future of Work" Chair in ESADE Business School in Barcelona.  He is a Full professor of HRM and Work Psychology at the Ramon Llull University


Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., De Boer, E. & Schaufeli, W. B. (2003). Job demands and job resources as predictors of absence duration and frequency. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 341–356.

Bakker, A. B. & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands–resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 309–328.

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E. & Euwema, M. C. (2005). Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout. Journal of occupational health psychology, 10(2), 170–80. doi:10.1037/1076-8998.10.2.170

Bakker, A., E. Demerouti, T. Taris, W. Schaufeli, P. S. (2003). A multigroup analysis of the job demands-resources model in 4 home care organizations.pdf. International Journal of stress management, 10(1), 16–38. doi:10.1037/1072.5245.10.1.16

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Verbeke, W. (2004).Using the job demands–resources model to predict burnout and performance. Human Resource Management, 43, 83– 104.

Bakker A.B. & Demerouti E. (2008).Towards a model of work engagement. Career Development International 13(3), 209–223.

Bakker, A. B. & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands–resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 309–328. doi:10.1108/02683940710733115

Bakker, A. B., Hakanen, J. J., Demerouti, E. & Xanthopoulou, D. (2007). Job resources boost work engagement, particularly when job demands are high. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(2), 274–284. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.99.2.274

Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P. & Taris, T. W. (2008). Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupational health psychology. Work & Stress, 22(3), 187–200. doi:10.1080/02678370802393649.

Bakker, A. B., ten Brummelhuis, L. L., Prins, J. T., & van der Heijden, F. M. M. A. (2011). Applying the job demands-resources model to the work–home interface. A study among medical residents and their partners. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79, 170–180. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2010.12.004

Bakker, A.B., Van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. & Xanthopoulou, D. (2010). Beyond the Demand-Control model: Thriving on high job demands and resources. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 3–16. doi:10.1027/1866-5888/a000006

Bargagliotti,A.L.(2011). Work engagement in nursing a concept analysis. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 68(6),1414-1428.

Baumruk, R. (2004).The missing link: the role of employee engagement in business success, Workspan, 47, 48-52.

Billings, D. W., Folkman, S., Acree, M. & Moskowitz, J. T. (2000).Coping and physical health during caregiving.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 131–142.

Blizzard R. (2005). Nursing Engagement Key to Reducing Medical Errors. Gallup Poll News Service. People more important than technology. Retrieved from com/poll/20629/Nurse-Engagement-Key-Reducing-Medical.

Bjarnadottir, A. (2011). Work engagement among nurses in relationally demanding jobs in the hospital sector. Nursing science, 31(3), 30–34.

Chang C.S. & Chang H.H. (2007) Effects of internal marketing on nurse job satisfaction and organizational commitment: example of medical centers in Southern Taiwan. Journal of Nursing Research, 15(4), 265–274.

Chen Y.M. & Johantgen M.E. (2010). Magnet hospital attributes: a multi-level model of job satisfaction. International Journal of Nursing Studies 47, 1001–1012.

Crampton, S.M. and Wagner, J.A. III (1994). Percept-percept inflation in micro-organizational research: an investigation of prevalence and effect. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 67-76.

De Braine1, R. & Roodt1,G.(2011). The Job Demands-Resources model as predictor of work identity and work engagement: A comparative analysis, SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, 37(2), Art. #889, 11 pages. doi:10.4102/sajip.v37i2.889

De Bruin, A. D., A. (2004). Work-life balance?: insights from non-standard work. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations, 29(1), 21-37.

de Lange, A. H., De Witte, H. & Notelaers, G. (2008). Should I stay or should I go? Examining longitudinal relations among job resources and work engagement for stayers versus movers. Work & Stress, 22(3), 201–223. doi:10.1080/02678370802390132

Demerouti, E. Bakker, A. Nachreiner, F. & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demand-resources model of burnout.pdf. Journal of Applied Psychology. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.86.3.499

Demerouti, E. & Bakker, A. (2011). The Job Demands– Resources model: Challenges for future research. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, 37(2), Art. #974, 9 pages. doi:10.4102/ sajip.v37i2.974

Dolan S.L., Arsenault A. (2009). Stress, Estime de soi, sante et travail. Presse de l´ünivertsite du Quebec. Montreal.

Dolan SL, Van Ameringen MR, Corbin S, Arsenault A. (1992a) Lack of professional latitude and role problems as correlates of propensity to quit amongst nursing staff, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17(12):1455-9.

Dolan, S.L., Van Ameringen, M.R. & Arsenault, A.(1992b).The role of personality and social support in the etiology of workers’ stress and psychological strain. Industrial Relations, 47(1), 125-139.

Fasoli D.J. (2010). The culture of nursing engagement: a historical perspective. Nursing Administration Quarterly 34(1), 18–29.

Frank, F.D., Finnegan, R.P. & Taylor, C.R. (2004). The race for talent: retaining and engaging workers in the 21st century. Human Resource Planning, 27 (3), 12-25.

Frazier, P. A., Tix, A. P., & Barron, K. E. (2004).Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51, 115–134

Fried Y. & Ferris G. (1987). The validity of the job characteristics model: A review and meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 40, 287–322.

Giallonardo, L.M., Wong C. A. & Iwasiw C.L. (2010). Authentic leadership of preceptors- predictor of new graduate nurses' work engagement and job satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Management 18, 993–1003.

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley

Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B. & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement among teachers. Journal of School Psychology, 43, 495–513.

Halbesleben, J. R. B. & Buckley, M. R. (2004). Burnout in organizational life. Journal of Management, 30, 859–879.

Halbesleben, J. R. B., Harvey, J. & Bolino, M. C. (2009). Too engaged? A conservation of resources view of the relationship between work engagement and work interference with family. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6), 1452–65.doi:10.1037/a0017595

Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 268–279. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.87.2.268

Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44, 513–524.

Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6, 307–324.

House, J. S. (1981). Work stress and social support. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Jenaro C., Flores N., Orgaz M.B. & Cruz M. (2010). Vigour and dedication in nursing professionals: towards a better understanding of work engagement. Journal of Advanced Nursing 67(4), 865–875.

Joiner, T.A, Bartram, T. (2004).,How empowerment and social support affect Australian nurses' work stressors, Australian Health Review, 28,1,56-64.

Kahn, R. L. & Byosiere, P. (1992). Stress in organizations. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology Vol. 3, pp. 571–650. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Karasek, R. A. (1979). Job demands, job decision latitude and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 285–308.

Karasek, R.A, Brisson, C. & Kawakami, N. (1998). The job content questionnaire: An instrument for internationally comparative assessment of psychosocial job characteristics. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 3(4), 322-355.

Leana, C., Appelbaum, E. & Shevchuk, I. (2009). Work process and quality of care in early childhood education: The role of job crafting. Academy of Management Journal, 52, 1169–1192.

Le Blanc, P., Schaufeli, W.B., Salanova, M., Llorens, S. & Nap, R.E.(2010) Efficacy beliefs predict collaborative practice among intensive care unit nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 583–594.

Llorens , S., Schaufeli, W., Bakker, A.B & Salanova, M. (2007). Does a positive gain spiral of resources, efficacy beliefs and engagement exist? Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 825–841.

Manion, J. (2009). Managing the Multi-Generational Nursing Workforce: Managerial and Policy Implications. International Council of Nursing. Retrieved from on 10 January

Mauno, S., Kinnunen, U. & Ruokolainen, M. (2007). Job demands and resources as antecedents of work engagement: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70, 149– 171.

Moodie, S., Dolan, S. L., and Arsenault, A. (2011). Exploring the multiple linkages between the metabolic syndrome and stress: An empirical analysis of the relationships between stress, health, and metabolic syndrome among Catalan nurses, First International Conference on Prehypertension and Cardio Metabolic Syndrome (PreHT). Vienna.

Moodie S., Dolan S.L., Burke R., (2014). Exploring the causes, symptoms and health consequences of joint and inverse states of work engagement and burnout, Management Research: the Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, (in press)

Nahrgang, J. D., Morgeson, F. P., & Hofmann, D. A. (2011). Safety at work: A meta-analytic investigation of the link between job demands, job resources, burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes. The Journal of Applied psychology, 96(1), 71–94.doi:10.1037/a0021484

Nerstad, C. G. L., Richardsen, A. M., &Martinussen, M. (2010).Factorial validity of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) across occupational groups in Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51(4), 326–33. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00770.x

Nolan P., Smojkis M., (2003) The mental health of nurses in the UK, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment , Vol 9: 374-379

Peeters, M., Montgomery, A., Bakker, A. & Schaufeli, W. (2005). Balancing work and home: How job demands and home demands are related to burnout. International Journal of Stress Management, 12, 43–61. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.12.1.43

Peng, K. Z., Wong, C.S. & Che, H.S. (2010). The missing link between emotional demands and exhaustion. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(7), 777–798. doi:10.1108/02683941011075300.

Petrou, P., Demerouti, E., Peeters, M. C. W., Schaufeli, W. & Hetland, J. (2012). Crafting a job on a daily basis: Contextual correlates and the link to work engagement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33, 1120–1141.

Podsakoff, P.M, MacKenzie, S.B, Lee J-Y, Podsakoff, N.P. (2003). Commonmethod biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903.

Rich B.L., LePine J.A. & Crawford E.R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 617–635.

Richman, A. (2006). Everyone wants an engaged workforce. How can you create it?, Workspan, 49,36-39.

Richardsen A.M., Burke, R.J. & Martinussen, M. (2006). Work and health outcomes among police officers: The mediating role of police cynicism and engagement. International Journal of Stress Management, 13, 555–574.

Salanova, M., Lorente, L., Chambel, M.J & MartiÌnez, I.M.(2011). Linking transformational leadership to nurses’ extra-role performance. The mediating role of self-efficacy and work engagement. Journal of Advances in Nursing, 67(10),2256-2266.

Salanova, M., Agut, S. & Peiró, J. M. (2005). Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: The mediation of service climate. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1217–27. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1217

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 293–315.

Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V. & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 71–92.

Schaufeli, W.B., Taris, T.W., Le Blanc, P., Peeters, M., Bakker, A.B. & De Jonge, J. (2001). Maakt arbeid gezond? Op zoek naar de bevlogen werknemer [Does work make happy? In search of the engaged worker]. De Psycholoog, 36, 422-428.

Schaufeli W.B., Taris T.W. & Van Rhenen W. (2008). Workaholism, burnout, and engagement: Three of a kind or three different kinds of employee well-being? Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57, 173–203.

Schroeder,L. & Worrall- Carters,L.(2002). Perioperative managers: Role stress and strategies for coping, Contemporary Nurse, 13,229-238.

Seers, A., McGee, G. W., Serey, T. T. & Graen, G. B. (1983). The interaction of job stress and social support: A strong inference investigation. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 273–284.

Seligman, M. E. P. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: an introduction, American Psychologist, 55, 5–14.

Severinsson, E., Hummelvoll, J.K.(2001).Factors influencing job satisfaction and ethical dilemmas in acute psychiatric care. Nursing Health Science, 3, 81–90.

Shaw, K. (2005). An engagement strategy process for communicators, Strategic Communication Management, 9(3), 26-29.

Shirey, M. R. (2004). Social support in the workplace: Nurse leader implications, Nursing Economics, 6, 313-319.

Shirom, A.,Nirel, N. & Vinokur, A.D. (2006). Overload, autonomy, and burnout as predictors of physicians quality of care. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 11(4), 382-342.

Siegrist, J. (1996). Adverse health effects of high effort–low reward conditions. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1, 27–41.

Simpson, M.R. (2009). Engagement at work: A review of the literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies 46, 1012–1024.

Smith, D.E. & Konczak, L. J. (2012). Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research. Personnel Psychology, 65(1).

Sonnentag, S., Mojza, E. J., Demerouti, E. & Bakker, A. B. (2012). Reciprocal relations between recovery and work engagement: the moderating role of job stressors. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(4), 842–53. doi:10.1037/a0028292

Ten Brummelhuis, L.L., & Bakker, A.B. (2012). Staying engaged during the week: The effect of off-job activities on next day work engagement. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(4), 445–55. doi:10.1037/a0029213.

Tims, M., Bakker, A. B. & Derks, D. (2013).The Impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18(2), 230–240. doi:10.1037/a0032141

Tourangeau A.E. & Cranley L.A. (2006). Nurse intention to remain employed: Understanding and strengthening determinants. Journal of Advanced Nursing 55(4), 497–509.

Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., De Witte, H. & Lens, W. (2008). Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout, and engagement: The role of basic psychological need satisfaction. Work & Stress, 22(3), 277–294. doi:10.1080/02678370802393672

Van Veldhoven, M., & Meijman, T.F. (1994). Measuring psychosocial workload by means of a questionnaire: Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work VBBA. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: NIA.

Xanthopoulou D., Bakker A.B., Demerouti E. & Schaufeli W.B. (2009). Reciprocal relationships between job resources, personal resources and work engagement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74, 235–244.

Zangaro G.A. & Soeken K.L. (2007) Analysis of studies of nurses’ job satisfaction.

How to Cite
Gabel-Shemueli, R., Dolan, S. L., & Suárez Ceretti, A. (2015). Being engaged: The multiple interactions between job demands and job resources and its impact on nurses engagement. International Journal of Nursing, 3(2), 17-32. Retrieved from
Mental Health Nursing